The word LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser is a device that emits a concentrated beam of photons, which are the basic units of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation is another word for light. A laser controls the way energized atoms release photons and work by focusing the light energy into a narrow beam; mirrors are used inside the laser device to make the photons bounce off each other and charge up.
Optical physics is a study of atomics and molecules. It is the study of electromagnetic radiation, the interaction and the properties of that radiation, with matter, especially its manipulation and control. It differs from general optics and optical engineering, however among optical physics, applied optics, and optical engineering, the applications of applied optics and the devices of optical engineering are necessary for basic research in optical physics, and that research takes to the development of new devices and applications. Major study in optical physics is also keen to quantum optics and coherence. In optical physics, research is also stimulated in areas such as ultra-short electromagnetic fields, the nonlinear response of isolated atoms to intense, quantum properties of the electromagnetic field, and the atom-cavity interaction at high fields. Photosensitive imaging is a system to find in a non-assaulting way inside the body, equivalent what is finished with x-beam shafts.
Nanoparticles and nanomaterial have different fundamental properties. The applications of laser radiation in the nanotechnology are ranging from fabrication, melting and evaporating. This process is done to change the shape, structure, size and size distribution. The progress in the field of nanotechnology is greatly relied on the uses of lasers. The combination of laser and nanotechnology in the field of cancer treatment has made a good progress over the year.
Optical communications networks are enhancing a vital role such as there is high demand for capacity links. Optoelectronics is the field of technology that associates the physics of light with electricity. Optoelectronics is built up on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, sometimes in the presence of electric fields, especially semiconductors. Optoelectronic technologies comprise of laser systems, remote sensing systems, fibre optic communications, optical information systems, and electric eyes medical diagnostic systems.
Lasers release high-control light shafts. In laser and optical headways, specialists channel these poles for use in coherent instruments, building, and biomedical research, correspondence and pharmaceutical. Also, laser and optical development can advance the fields of pharmaceutical, science and planning through the change and usage of new headways. Fiber optics components, Optical materials, Optical coatings, semiconductors, Optical manipulation techniques, spectroscopies, Optics for astronomy ,Column laser technology
Optical metrology is using light to set the standards that define units of measurement and for other high-precision research. Optical tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research.
Optomechanics refer to the sub-field of physics involving the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with mechanical systems via radiation pressure, maintenance of optical parts and devices. Nano-optomechanics is a vibrant area of research that continues to push the boundary of quantum science and measurement technology. Recently, it has been realised that the optical forces experienced by polarisable nanoparticles can provide a novel platform for nano-optomechanics with untethered mechanical oscillators. Nanomaterials are cornerstones of nanoscience and nanotechnology. One of the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials is their optical properties. Applications based on optical properties of nanomaterials include optical detector, laser, sensor, imaging, phosphor, display, solar cell, photocatalysis, photoelectrochemistry and biomedicine.
Quantum sensor is the term utilized as a part of different settings wherever caught quantum frameworks are intimidated to improve more touchy magnetometers or nuclear timekeepers. Quantum Photonics is to investigate the crucial highlights of quantum mechanics and furthermore the work towards future photonic quantum innovations by controlling, producing and estimating single photons and in addition the quantum frameworks that emanate photons. Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.
Nano photonics is the study of the behavior of light on the nano meter scale, and of the interaction of nano meter-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. It often involves metallic components, which can transport and focus light by means of surface plasmon polaritons. Bio photonics can also be described as the advance and examined, i.e. scattering material, on a microscopic or macroscopic scale application of optical techniques particularly imaging, to study of biological molecules, tissue and cells. One of the main benefits of using optical techniques which make up bio photonics is that they reserve the reliability of the biological cells being. Biophotonics is a new field that relies on the effects of lasers to move particles of matter into certain organizational structures, such as three-dimensional chessboard, or hexagonal arrays. Biophotonics also includes the photonic performance of biological materials
New discoveries in materials on the nanometer- length scale are expected to play an important role in addressing ongoing and future challenges in the field of communication. Devices and systems for ultra-high-speed short- and long-range communication links, taporble and power-efficient computing devices, high-density memory and logics, ultra-fast interconnects, and autonomous and robust energy scavenging devices for accessing ambient intelligence and needed information will critically depend on the success of next-generation emerging nanomaterials and devices
Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field where physics, chemistry and biology at sub atomic realm intersect with electronics engineering, communication technology, mechanical engineering and instrumentation techniques. Radiation can be used to improve the quality of life in many more ways than people realize. Nuclear energy, which uses radioactive materials, has a variety of important uses in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, as well as in our homes.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. The nonlinearity is typically observed only at very high light intensities (values of atomic electric fields, typically 108 V/m) such as those provided by lasers. Above the Schwinger limit, the vacuum itself is expected to become nonlinear. In nonlinear optics, the superposition principle no longer holds.
Photonic crystals can also be considered as metamaterials with optical properties impossible to achieve with nonstructured materials. As an example, the structure can behave like a material having a refractive index of zero or even negative. Many laboratories and companies pay a lot of attention to the study of metamaterials as important applications may come soon with cloaking properties and stealthiness or perfectly stigmatic optics. It is interesting to consider multilayer mirrors not only as an interference system but also as a diffractive component. photonic materials is extremely broad, including subfields of well-established glass and semi- conductor materials, polymer materials, tailored nano- and metamaterials, and emerging synthetic bio photonic materials, just to name a few.
The purity of the laser light can be improved more than the purity of any other light source. This makes the laser a very useful source for spectroscopy. The high intensity of light that can be achieved in a small, well collimated beam can also be used to induce a nonlinear optical effect in a sample, which makes techniques such as Raman spectroscopy possible. The development of engineering material has made impressive progress through use of spectroscopes analysis such as IR, SEM, EXAFS, XAS, photoluminescence, ultraviolet, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and others to form the foundations of engineering materials which has been recognized as one of the key drivers of science, technology, and economics in the recent years.
The lasers can be used to focus very small diameters where the concentration of light energy becomes so great that you can cut, drill or turn with the beam. The lasers can illuminate and examine very tiny details with lasers, thus it is used in surgical appliances and CD players as well. Lasers are monochromatic, so it has only one light wavelength. Some of the applications are low coherence interferometry, spectroscopy, and Laser spectroscopy. The application optical science creates advancements in medicine, manufacturing, communication and entertainment.
Trials with lsear beam showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue effortlessly and neatly. The surgeon could direct the beam from any angle by using a mirror attached on a movable metal arm. Lasers were considered as most effective in operating on parts that are easy to reach-areas on the body's exterior, including the ears, skin, mouth, eyes and nose. But in recent years doctors have established the remarkable progress in emerging laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery. For illustration lasers are gradually used to clean plaque from people's arteries.
Photonics is an area of study that involves the use of radiant energy (such as light), whose fundamental element is the photon. Photonic applications use the photon in the same way that electronic applications use the electron. Devices that run on light have a number of advantages over those that use electricity. Photonic routing has been attracting much interest to overcome the bottleneck of routing function in high-speed networks. In particular, photonic label routing network is expected to provide fast routing of packets at high-bit rate with simple processing. As one of the nature of light, phase of coherent light has been effectively used in various optical systems.
The laser has driven both scientific and technological innovation in every facet of modern life. Finding new uses for laser technology will provide the most dramatic breakthroughs. The laser shows the sign of continuing its unique and creative role. The role of the laser is expanding. The main reason why the laser is so special because it allows us to harness light in unique way. Finding new uses for laser technology will provide the most dramatic breakthroughs. Some of the development will be far-reaching medical diagnosis, dramatically more efficient computers and communications, laser boost energy application and security and protection.
The optical properties of nanoscale composite materials are often quite different from the properties of the constituent materials from which the composite is constructed. The formation of composite materials thus constitutes a means for engineering new materials with desired optical properties. Depending on the size of the smallest feature, the interaction of light with structured materials can be very different. This fundamental problem is treated by different theories. If first order theories are sufficient to describe the scattering from low roughness surfaces, second order or even higher order theories must be used for high roughness surfaces. Random surface structures can then be designed to distribute the light in different propagation directions.Generally, models used to study the optical properties of nanostructures are based on the electromagnetic theory.
Diamond photonics in general is the physical science of photon generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and sensing based on diamond or on nano-diamond. Diamond possesses remarkable physical and chemical properties, high mechanical hardness, large Young´s module and high thermal conductivity. In addition to that, it enters more and more also the quantum optics´ stage. Silicon photonics is the modulation, processing detection and generation of light on a CMOS compatible platform. Silicon photonics technology has been conventionally used to fabricate high performance photonic circuits, which have low-power-consumption, are compact, and are relatively inexpensive to fabricate.
Applications of laser, optics & photonics are abundant. They include in our everyday life to the most advanced science, e.g. information processing, medicine, military technology, bio photonics, agriculture, robotics, and visual art. Spectroscopy, Heat treatment, Lunar laser ranging, Photochemistry, Laser scanner, Nuclear fusion, Microscopy are the applications of lasers. Modelling and design of optical systems using physical optics, Superposition and interference, Diffraction and optical resolution, Dispersion and scattering, Reflections and Refraction are the application for optics. Application for photonics are in the field of telecommunications, photonic computing, medicine, aviation, construction, military, metrology, etc. Trends in laser, optics & photonics include VCSEL Technology, custom leather gifts, LIDAR & Proximity sensors, UV Printing, Enhanced cinema display in theatres, Emergence of dermatology, Integrated optics, Microoptics, Halographic optical elements, Optical memories, Photonic crystal, silicon bases optoelectrons.
Designing and utilization of novel materials for manufacturing of the sources of coherent irradiation is currently a vast area, which spans various theoretical and fundamental aspects of condensed matter physics. Physical realization of corresponding devices requires the ability to manipulate the group velocity of propagation of electromagnetic pulses, which is accomplished by the use of the so-called polaritonic crystals. The latter represent a particular type of photonic crystals featured by a strong coupling between quantum excitations in a medium (excitons) and optical fields. An example of polaritonic structure can be given by a spatially periodic system of coupled microcavities.
Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging techniques in different areas of life science including biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, bionanotechnology, pharmaceutical science, physiology and medicine. Biomedical optics very well may be the future of our health care industry. Whether you are an athlete, patient, or parent of an infant, biomedical optics will most likely play a significant role in your health care or that of someone you love in the near future. Biomedical optics utilize NIR (near-infrared) spectroscopy in a number of ways and provides a safe, non-invasive, and non-destructive method of analysis for a variety of medical needs.
Semiconductor lasers have important applications in numerous fields, including engineering, biology, chemistry and medicine. They form the backbone of the optical telecommunications infrastructure supporting the internet, and are used in information storage devices, bar-code scanners, laser printers and many other everyday products. Multi-wavelength laser has found a lot of applications in many filed, such as optical communication, optical fiber sensing, laser measurement, optical component testing and so on