The word LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser is a device that emits a concentrated beam of photons, which are the basic units of electromagnetic radiation. The applications of laser radiation in the nanotechnology are ranging from fabrication, melting and evaporating. The combination of laser and nanotechnology in the field of cancer treatment has made a good progress over the year. There are many application of laser in the nanotechnology which will be discussed in detail in this section
Optical fiber technology was developed for telecommunication applications. Very soon optical fibers were seen to expand its application area like sensing field. The growths of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with their significant optical properties have confirmed the prospective benefits of optical fibers in chemical and biological sensing. Fiber lasers are basically different from other laser types; in a fiber laser the active medium that produces the laser beam is actually isolated within the fiber optic itself. Fiber lasers are now widely known because of its most focusable or highest brightness of any laser type.
Optical physics is a study of atomics and molecules. It is the study of electromagnetic radiation, the interaction and the properties of that radiation, with matter, especially its manipulation and control. It differs from general optics and optical engineering, however among optical physics, applied optics, and optical engineering, the applications of applied optics and the devices of optical engineering are necessary for basic research in optical physics, and that research takes to the development of new devices and applications. Major study in optical physics is also keen to quantum optics and coherence.
Optical communications networks are enhancing a vital role such as there is high demand for capacity links. Optoelectronics is the field of technology that associates the physics of light with electricity. Optoelectronics is built up on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, sometimes in the presence of electric fields, especially semiconductors. Optoelectronic technologies comprise of laser systems, remote sensing systems, fibre optic communications, optical information systems, and electric eyes medical diagnostic systems.
Optomechanics refer to the sub-field of physics involving the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with mechanical systems via radiation pressure, maintenance of optical parts and devices. Nano-optomechanics is a vibrant area of research that continues to push the boundary of quantum science and measurement technology. One of the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials is their optical properties. Applications based on optical properties of nanomaterials include optical detector, laser, sensor, imaging, phosphor, display, solar cell, photocatalysis, photoelectrochemistry and biomedicine.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of eye disorders. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in ophthalmology. Optometry is a health care profession that involves examining the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities as well as the medical diagnosis and management of eye disease.
Optical metrology is using light to set the standards that define units of measurement and for other high-precision research. Optical tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research.
Quantum sensor is the term utilized as a part of different settings wherever caught quantum frameworks are intimidated to improve more touchy magnetometers or nuclear timekeepers. Quantum Photonics is to investigate the crucial highlights of quantum mechanics and furthermore the work towards future photonic quantum innovations by controlling, producing and estimating single photons and in addition the quantum frameworks that emanate photons. Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.
Nanophotonics is the study of the behavior of light on the nano meter scale, and of the interaction of nano meter-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. Biophotonics can also be described as the advance and examined, i.e. scattering material, on a microscopic or macroscopic scale application of optical techniques particularly imaging, to study of biological molecules, tissue and cells. Biophotonics also includes the photonic performance of biological materials
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. The nonlinearity is typically observed only at very high light intensities (values of atomic electric fields, typically 108 V/m) such as those provided by lasers. Above the Schwinger limit, the vacuum itself is expected to become nonlinear. In nonlinear optics, the superposition principle no longer holds.
Photonic crystals can also be considered as metamaterials with optical properties impossible to achieve with nonstructured materials. Photonic materials is extremely broad, including subfields of well-established glass and semi- conductor materials, polymer materials, tailored nano- and metamaterials, and emerging synthetic bio photonic materials, just to name a few.
The lasers can be used to focus very small diameters where the concentration of light energy becomes so great that you can cut, drill or turn with the beam. The lasers can illuminate and examine very tiny details with lasers, thus it is used in surgical appliances and CD players as well. Photonic devices are components for creating, manipulating or detecting light. This can include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, solar and photovoltaic cells, displays and optical amplifiers.
Trials with laser beam showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue effortlessly and neatly. Lasers were considered as most effective in operating on parts that are easy to reach-areas on the body's exterior, including the ears, skin, mouth, eyes and nose. But in recent years doctors have established the remarkable progress in emerging laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery.
Photonics is an area of study that involves the use of radiant energy (such as light), whose fundamental element is the photon. Photonic applications use the photon in the same way that electronic applications use the electron.
Plasmonics is an emerging technology which is being used to increase the performance of thin-film devices via light trapping mechanism.
The optical properties of nanoscale composite materials are often quite different from the properties of the constituent materials from which the composite is constructed. Generally, models used to study the optical properties of nanostructures are based on the electromagnetic theory. Optical or Photonic computing utilizes photons delivered by lasers or diodes for computation. For a considerable length of time, photons have guaranteed to permit a higher data transfer capacity than the electrons utilized as a part of ordinary PCs.
Nano-optics or Nanophotonics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, optical engineering, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. It often (but not exclusively) involves metallic components, which can transport and focus light via surface plasmon polaritons.
Applications of laser, optics & photonics are abundant. They include in our everyday life to the most advanced science, e.g. information processing, medicine, military technology, bio photonics, agriculture, robotics, and visual art. Spectroscopy, Heat treatment, Lunar laser ranging, Photochemistry, Laser scanner, Nuclear fusion, Microscopy are the applications of lasers. Integrated optics, Microoptics, Halographic optical elements, Optical memories, Photonic crystal, silicon bases optoelectrons.
Silicon photonics is the modulation, processing, detection and generation of light in a CMOS compatible platform. Thus, silicon photonic chips can cost-effectively meet the ever increasingly data and bandwidth demands of a worldwide internet, growing with an annual rate of 20-30%. Diamond photonics in general is the physical science of photon generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and sensing based on diamond or on nano-diamond. Diamond possesses remarkable physical and chemical properties, high mechanical hardness, large Young´s module and high thermal conductivity. Diamond is a very interesting and promising material for many applications, from which the fields of quantum information, quantum optics and quantum radiometry belong to the most exciting ones.
Designing and utilization of novel materials for manufacturing of the sources of coherent irradiation is currently a vast area, which spans various theoretical and fundamental aspects of condensed matter physics. Physical realization of corresponding devices requires the ability to manipulate the group velocity of propagation of electromagnetic pulses, which is accomplished by the use of the so-called polaritonic crystals. The latter represent a particular type of photonic crystals featured by a strong coupling between quantum excitations in a medium (excitons) and optical fields. An example of polaritonic structure can be given by a spatially periodic system of coupled microcavities.
Nanotechnology is the handling of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers.
Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field where physics, chemistry and biology at sub atomic realm intersect with electronics engineering, communication technology, mechanical engineering and instrumentation techniques. Radiation can be used to improve the quality of life in many more ways than people realize. Nuclear energy, which uses radioactive materials, has a variety of important uses in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, as well as in our homes.
The combination of MEMS converged with Micro-optics all called Micro-Opto Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). The detecting or controlling optical flags on small scale using three different frameworks i.e mechanical, optical, and electrical frameworks. An optical switch, optical cross-interface, tunable VCSEL, microbolometers are some among the wide range of MOEMS Gadgets. These gadgets are normally created utilizing small-scale optics and standard micromachining innovations utilizing materials like silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and gallium arsenide.
Innovation and strategies which are used to give imaging-based programmed investigation and examination are called Machine Vision. Machine Vision technology is used for varied applications such as programme assessment, process control, and robotics etc. It is one of the booming techniques in the industry today. It endeavors to coordinate existing advances in new ways and apply them to take care of certifiable issues. The term is additionally utilized as a part of a more extensive sense in terms of professional career shows and exchange gatherings; this more extensive definition likewise includes items and applications frequently connected with picture preparing.
Astronomical optics is a branch of optics and photonics that uses light-controlling components for imaging celestial objects. The most notable example is the telescope. Astronomical optics combines precisely machined lenses and mirrors to reduce any image distortion, and highly sensitive sensors to detect low levels of light.
Optical engineering is the field of study that focuses on applications of optics. Optical engineering deals with design of optical instruments such as lenses, microscopes, telescopes, and other equipment that utilizes the properties of light using physics and chemistry. An optical device is a device that creates, manipulates, or measures electromagnetic radiation.
Ultrafast lasers are lasers that produce short pulses of light, typically less than one picosecond. These devices often rely on techniques such as mode locking to create a train of pulses. Ultrafast lasers are an important probe of electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. An optical parametric amplifier, abbreviated OPA, is a laser light source that emits light of variable wavelengths by an optical parametric amplification process.
Laser diagnostics techniques developed quickly in the past several years. They are used to measure the parameters of the combustion flow field such as velocity, temperature, and components concentration with high space and time resolution and brought no disturbance. Medical lasers are medical devices that use precisely focused light sources to treat or remove tissues.
A laser diode, (LD), injection laser diode (ILD), or diode laser is a semiconductor device similar to a light-emitting diode in which a laser beam is created at the diode's junction. Laser diodes can directly convert electrical energy into light. Laser-driven acceleration of relativistic electrons in the optical regime has been first observed at a single matter-vacuum interface which was not a grating [15, 16]. The maximum acceleration gradient was 40 MeV m−1 for 30 MeV electrons.
Photoconductivity, as a well-known optical and electrical phenomenon in semiconductor, is an effect that the electrical conductivity increases due to the absorption of light radiation. Several mechanisms, such as the absorption of the incident light, the generation of the electron–hole pairs, and the carrier transport, are involved in photoconductivity successively or simultaneously. To cause excitation, the incident light must have energy larger than the bandgap of the semiconductor so as to raise electrons to the conduction band, or to excite the impurities within the bandgap, and thereby form the electron–hole pairs. The increase of the electrical conductivity depends on the number of the photogenerated electron–hole pairs and the mobility of the carriers, while the duration of the increase is determined by many factors, such as the lifetime of the carriers, the time for the carriers to be trapped. Photoconductivity is the base for the photodetection operation.