Sessions & Descriptions

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The word LASER stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. A laser is a device that emits a concentrated beam of photons, which are the basic units of electromagnetic radiation. The applications of laser radiation in the nanotechnology are ranging from fabrication, melting and evaporating. The combination of laser and nanotechnology in the field of cancer treatment has made a good progress over the year. There are many application of laser in the nanotechnology which will be discussed in detail in this section

 

Optical fiber technology was developed for telecommunication applications. Very soon optical fibers were seen to expand its application area like sensing field. The growths of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) with their significant optical properties have confirmed the prospective benefits of optical fibers in chemical and biological sensing. Fiber lasers are basically different from other laser types; in a fiber laser the active medium that produces the laser beam is actually isolated within the fiber optic itself. Fiber lasers are now widely known because of its most focusable or highest brightness of any laser type.

 

Optical physics is a study of atomics and molecules. It is the study of electromagnetic radiation, the interaction and the properties of that radiation, with matter, especially its manipulation and control. It differs from general optics and optical engineering, however among optical physics, applied optics, and optical engineering, the applications of applied optics and the devices of optical engineering are necessary for basic research in optical physics, and that research takes to the development of new devices and applications. Major study in optical physics is also keen to quantum optics and coherence.

 

Optical communications networks are enhancing a vital role such as there is high demand for capacity links. Optoelectronics is the field of technology that associates the physics of light with electricity.  Optoelectronics is built up on the quantum mechanical effects of light on electronic materials, sometimes in the presence of electric fields, especially semiconductors. Optoelectronic technologies comprise of laser systems, remote sensing systems, fibre optic communications, optical information systems, and electric eyes medical diagnostic systems.

 

Laser and optical development can advance the fields of pharmaceutical, science and planning through the change and usage of new headways. Fiber optics components, Optical materials, Optical coatingssemiconductors, Optical manipulation techniquesspectroscopies, Optics for astronomy, Column laser technology

 

Optical metrology is using light to set the standards that define units of measurement and for other high-precision research. Optical tomography is a form of computed tomography that creates a digital volumetric model of an object by reconstructing images made from light transmitted and scattered through an object. Optical tomography is used mostly in medical imaging research.

 

Optomechanics refer to the sub-field of physics involving the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with mechanical systems via radiation pressure, maintenance of optical parts and devices. Nano-optomechanics is a vibrant area of research that continues to push the boundary of quantum science and measurement technology. One of the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials is their optical properties. Applications based on optical properties of nanomaterials include optical detectorlaser, sensor, imaging, phosphor, display, solar cell, photocatalysis, photoelectrochemistry and biomedicine.

 

Quantum sensor is the term utilized as a part of different settings wherever caught quantum frameworks are intimidated to improve more touchy magnetometers or nuclear timekeepers. Quantum Photonics is to investigate the crucial highlights of quantum mechanics and furthermore the work towards future photonic quantum innovations by controlling, producing and estimating single photons and in addition the quantum frameworks that emanate photonsQuantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

 

Nanophotonics is the study of the behavior of light on the nano meter scale, and of the interaction of nano meter-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, electrical engineering, and nanotechnologyBiophotonics can also be described as the advance and examined, i.e. scattering material, on a microscopic or macroscopic scale application of optical techniques particularly imaging, to study of biological molecules, tissue and cells. Biophotonics also includes the photonic performance of biological materials

 

Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light. The nonlinearity is typically observed only at very high light intensities (values of atomic electric fields, typically 108 V/m) such as those provided by lasers. Above the Schwinger limit, the vacuum itself is expected to become nonlinear. In nonlinear optics, the superposition principle no longer holds.

 

Photonic crystals can also be considered as metamaterials with optical properties impossible to achieve with nonstructured materials. Photonic materials is extremely broad, including subfields of well-established glass and semi- conductor materials, polymer materials, tailored nano- and metamaterials, and emerging synthetic bio photonic materials, just to name a few.

 

The lasers can be used to focus very small diameters where the concentration of light energy becomes so great that you can cut, drill or turn with the beam. The lasers can illuminate and examine very tiny details with lasers, thus it is used in surgical appliances and CD players as well. Photonic devices are components for creating, manipulating or detecting light. This can include laser diodes, light-emitting diodes, solar and photovoltaic cells, displays and optical amplifiers.

 

Trials with laser beam showed that a finely focused beam from a carbon dioxide gas laser could cut through human tissue effortlessly and neatly. Lasers were considered as most effective in operating on parts that are easy to reach-areas on the body's exterior, including the ears, skin, mouth, eyes and nose. But in recent years doctors have established the remarkable progress in emerging laser techniques for use in internal exploration and surgery.

 

Photonics is an area of study that involves the use of radiant energy (such as light), whose fundamental element is the photon. Photonic applications use the photon in the same way that electronic applications use the electron.

 

New discoveries in materials on the nanometer-length scale are expected to play an important role in addressing ongoing and future challenges in the field of communication. Devices and systems for ultra-high-speed short- and long-range communication links, power-efficient computing devices, high-density memory, logics, ultra-fast interconnects, autonomous and robust energy scavenging devices for accessing ambient intelligence and needed information will critically depend on the success of next-generation emerging nanomaterials and devices
 
There are many applications for laser, optics and photonics other than medicine. The other fields where the laser, optics and photonics are used are industries, defence, and scientific researchers. The development in this sector leads to the betterment of human life. This also affects the economic growth of the country. Some of the applications are ultrafast laser pumping, biophotonics research, annealing, LED laser lift-off, chemical detection and LIDAR.
 

The optical properties of nanoscale composite materials are often quite different from the properties of the constituent materials from which the composite is constructed. Generally, models used to study the optical properties of nanostructures are based on the electromagnetic theory. Optical or Photonic computing utilizes photons delivered by lasers or diodes for computation. For a considerable length of time, photons have guaranteed to permit a higher data transfer capacity than the electrons utilized as a part of ordinary PCs.

Photonic metamaterials are artificially engineered materials containing nanostructures which give them truly remarkable optical properties. These structures are made from at least two different materials (usually involving both metals and dielectrics). They are normally periodic, with the period being small compared to the optical wavelength. Therefore, the special optical properties do not arise from photonic bandgaps, but rather from an interaction which is more similar to that of atoms or ion in a normal solid medium. In contrast to photonic bandgap materials, photonic metamaterials can be described as homogeneous optical materials, much like natural materials, although with partly rather unusual material parameters.

Nano-optics or Nanophotonics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometer scale, and of the interaction of nanometer-scale objects with light. It is a branch of optics, optical engineering, electrical engineering, and nanotechnology. It often (but not exclusively) involves metallic components, which can transport and focus light via surface plasmon polaritons. 

Applications of laser, optics & photonics are abundant. They include in our everyday life to the most advanced science, e.g. information processing, medicine, military technology, bio photonics, agriculture, robotics, and visual art. Spectroscopy, Heat treatment, Lunar laser ranging, Photochemistry, Laser scanner, Nuclear fusion, Microscopy are the applications of lasers. Integrated optics, Microoptics, Halographic optical elements, Optical memories, Photonic crystal, silicon bases optoelectrons.

High Intensity Laser (HIL) technology is based on the well-known principle of low level laser therapy (LLLT). High power and choice of the right wavelength allow for deep tissue penetration. HIL offers powerful and non-addictive form of pain management. Through a natural process of energy transfer (biostimulation and photomechanical effect) it speeds up healing and regeneration. HIL is particularly effective in treatment of sport injuries, e.g. muscle strain or joint distortion, and back pain caused by e.g. herniated disc or disorders in the cervical region causing neck pain.

Designing and utilization of novel materials for manufacturing of the sources of coherent irradiation is currently a vast area, which spans various theoretical and fundamental aspects of condensed matter physics. Physical realization of corresponding devices requires the ability to manipulate the group velocity of propagation of electromagnetic pulses, which is accomplished by the use of the so-called polaritonic crystals. The latter represent a particular type of photonic crystals featured by a strong coupling between quantum excitations in a medium (excitons) and optical fields. An example of polaritonic structure can be given by a spatially periodic system of coupled microcavities. 

The field of condensed matter physics explores the macroscopic and microscopic properties of matter. Condensed Matter physicists study how matter arises from a large number of interacting atoms and electrons, and what physical properties it has as a result of these interactions.
Traditionally, condensed matter physics is split into "hard" condensed matter physics, which studies quantum properties of matter, and "soft" condensed matter physics which studies those properties of matter for which quantum mechanics plays no role.
 

Nanoscience is an interdisciplinary field where physics, chemistry and biology at sub atomic realm intersect with electronics engineering, communication technology, mechanical engineering and instrumentation techniques. Radiation can be used to improve the quality of life in many more ways than people realize. Nuclear energy, which uses radioactive materials, has a variety of important uses in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture, as well as in our homes.

The combination of MEMS converged with Micro-optics all called Micro-Opto Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS). The detecting or controlling optical flags on small scale using three different frameworks i.e mechanical, optical, and electrical frameworks. An optical switch, optical cross-interface, tunable VCSEL, microbolometers are some among the wide range of MOEMS Gadgets. These gadgets are normally created utilizing small-scale optics and standard micromachining innovations utilizing materials like silicon, silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, and gallium arsenide.

Innovation and strategies which are used to give imaging-based programmed investigation and examination are called Machine Vision. Machine Vision technology is used for varied applications such as programme assessment, process control, and robotics etc. It is one of the booming techniques in the industry today. It endeavors to coordinate existing advances in new ways and apply them to take care of certifiable issues. The term is additionally utilized as a part of a more extensive sense in terms of professional career shows and exchange gatherings; this more extensive definition likewise includes items and applications frequently connected with picture preparing.

 

Optics passage and genuine infiltration can vary completely depending upon the absorptivity of the astrophysical atmosphere. Optics infiltration is a measure of the obliteration coefficient or absorptivity up to positive 'significance' of a star's beautifiers. The doubt here is that either the ending coefficient or the area number thickness is known. These can generally be figured from various conditions if a significant part of the information is pondered the substance makeup of the star. Optics profundity can henceforth be thought of as the imperiousness of a medium. The end coefficient can be discovered using the trade condition.