The coronary arteries supply the heart muscle with nutrients and oxygen by circulating blood. Coronary arteries can become diseased or damaged, usually because of plaque deposits that contain cholesterol. Plaque buildup narrows the coronary arteries, and this causes the heart to receive less oxygen and nutrients.
Hypertension also known as High blood pressure, can have rarely noticeable symptoms. But if it is untreated, it may result with serious problems such as heart attacks and strokes. This blood pressure puts extra strain on your blood vessels, heart and other organs like brain, kidneys, eyes and it may lead to heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, aortic aneurysms, kidney disease, vascular dementia. It is better to take proper medications regularly in order to control the increase of the Blood pressure.
Also known as congestive heart failure, heart failure occurs when the heart does not pump blood around the body efficiently.The left or right side of the heart might be affected. Rarely, both sides are. Coronary artery disease or high blood pressure can, over time, leave the heart too stiff or weak to fill and pump properly.
Cardiomyopathy refers to diseases of the heart muscle. In cardiomyopathy, the heart muscle becomes enlarged, thick, or rigid. In rare cases, the muscle tissue in the heart is replaced with scar tissue.As cardiomyopathy worsens, the heart becomes weaker. It's less able to pump blood through the body and maintain a normal electrical rhythm. This can lead to heart failure or irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias. In turn, heart failure can cause fluid to build up in the lungs, ankles, feet, legs, or abdomen.
Types of cardiomyopathy are:
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels and they include:
Coronary heart disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle
Cerebrovascular disease – disease of the blood vessels supplying the brain
Peripheral arterial disease – disease of blood vessels supplying the arms and legs
Rheumatic heart disease – damage to the heart muscle and heart valves from rheumatic fever, caused by streptococcal bacteria
Congenital heart disease – malformations of heart structure existing at birth
Heart attacks and strokes are usually acute events and are mainly caused by a blockage that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common reason for this is a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart or brain. Strokes can also be caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain or from blood clots. The cause of heart attacks and strokes are usually the presence of a combination of risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
Cardiology is a branch of medicine which deals with disorders of the heart and the other parts of the circulatory system. This field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. It is likely that there will be continuing sub specialization in the tracking of technical expertise and clinical excellence in the field of cardiology.
Cardiovascular surgeons perform many different types of operations, including heart valve repair and replacement, heart defect repair, coronary artery bypass, aneurysm repair, trans myocardial laser revascularization, and heart transplantation, heart failure surgery, surgery to treat congenital heart defects in children and congenital heart disease in adults, trans catheter aortic valve replacement and implantation of ventricular assist devices, and total artificial hearts.. They also perform operations on the blood vessels in your body, including the aorta—the body’s main blood supplier. Heart surgery today may also include the use or implantation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), mechanical devices that “assist” the failing heart by helping it pump blood throughout the body.
Cardiovascular Toxicology deals with the adverse effects on the heart or blood systems which result from exposure to toxic chemicals. It describes safety data of detrimental effects of new cardiovascular drugs. Cardiovascular pharmacology manages the drug of heart illnesses. The Cardiac Drugs are utilized to treat states of the heart or the circulatory or vascular framework. Many classes of cardiovascular operators are accessible to treat the different cardiovascular conditions. Pharmacology of vascular endothelium deals with alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
Heart is a most important muscle organ in humans and animals to pump blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Medications that are used to treat other disorders in the body might show a great effect on the heart and cause various side effects. Therefore, case reports of cardiac arrest and its disease are very important in the development of treatment strategies.
Pediatric cardiology is outgrowing from the shadows of adult cardiology and cardiac surgery. It promises to be an attractive and sought-after subspeciality of Pediatrics, dealing with not only congenital cardiac diseases but also metabolic, rheumatic and host of other cardiac diseases. The new government policy shall provide more training avenues for the budding pediatric cardiologists, pediatric cardiac surgeons, pediatric anesthetists, pediatric cardiac intensivists, neonatologists and a host of supportive workforce. Neonatal heart conditions mainly includes heart defects associated with other types of disease, such as diaphragmatic hernia, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) or infection (myocarditis), Heart problems due to lung masses, etc. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common, congenital disorder in newborns. A neonatal cardiologist is a pediatrician who has received extensive training in diagnosing and treating babies cardiac problems.
Congenital heart defects, or diseases, are problems with the heart’s structure that are present at birth. They may change the normal flow of blood through the heart. Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect. There are many types of congenital heart defects. The most common defects involve the inside walls of the heart, the valves of the heart, or the large blood vessels that carry blood to and from the heart. Some defects require no treatment, but some require treatment soon after birth. Because diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects has improved, more babies are surviving and now many adults are living with congenital heart defects.
Cardio-oncology is very essential for the effective treatment of cancer patients. Virtually all antineoplastic agents are related with cardiotoxicity. All patients who are being considered for chemotherapy, particularly the individuals who have earlier history of heart sickness ought to experience point by point cardiovascular assessment to advance the treatment. Sequential examination of left ventricular systolic function and cardiac biomarkers might also be considered in the selected populations of patient. Cardio-toxic effects of chemotherapy can be decreased by the frequent use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors of enzyme, angiotensin receptor blockers, or beta-blockers. Antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy may be taken in patients with a potential hyper-coagulable state related with chemotherapy or malignant growth.