Sessions & Descriptions

Please click on any session name to view its description.

Having diabetes greatly enhances the risk of developing a heart disease and having a greater chance of a heart attack or a stroke. High blood pressure or high cholesterol which is often associated with diabetes is the main causative factors of cardiovascular diseases. Apart from these, several other serious vascular complications also arise because of diabetes viz. Angina, Deep vein thrombosis, endothelial dysfunction, Peripheral arterial disease, etc.  Identifying symptoms, maintaining a healthy weight, proper diet and medications and cutting down on smoking can help keep these otherwise serious complications under control.

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin. Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise. Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.

Diabetes is mainly of three types however, research has shown that a variety of other rare types of diabetes also exists. While insulin deficiency or resistance is the chief causative factor for the three main types of diabetes, there are a host of other factors which are responsible for the rare types of diabetes. Diabetes pathophysiology seeks to highlight the functional changes in an organism brought about due to the occurrence of diabetes

Diabetes is a complex, chronic condition estimated in 2014 by the World Health Organization to affect 422 million people globally.New therapies, monitoring, and revolutionary enabling technologies applied to healthcare represent an historic opportunity to improve the lives of people with diabetes. Newer insulins and delivery systems are in development that seek to mitigate both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and increase time in range. Information systems now exist that may be leveraged to merge data from previously discrete systems into new models of connected care.

A common form of treating people with diabetes is administering anti-diabetic drug. While insulin is the drug of choice for treating Type 1 diabetes, other classes of medicines like Sulphonylureas, Thiazolidinediones, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors, etc. are used to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Some drugs act uniquely to keep diabetes under control while others manifest similar behaviour due to which they have been grouped into specific classes of anti-diabetic drugs. There are some drugs which can be used to treat both the types of Diabetes. These work in different ways to help keep a check on the blood sugar.

The main aim of the diabetes is to detect the overall condition of the disorder, there are numerous case and research studies including animal models and human models. Type 2 diabetes is a modern epidemic. The aim of the ongoing research is to re-investigate the mechanisms by which and the depth in which integrated care for diabetes has been implemented, whose outcomes have been achieved and how the context and mechanisms have affected the outcomes. Two distinct types of prediabetes, depending on when the body fails to produce insulin, the hormone that signals body tissues to use glucose: impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose. Scientists are analyzing the data to understand the effects of different drugs on the two distinct types of prediabetes.

Complications associated with diabetes are often acute or chronic. Acute complications, though short-termed, can often present immediate danger and thus needs to be treated at the earliest possible. These short term complications are mainly characterised by the hypoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic state of the body in which it is unable to function properly. Acute complications mainly include diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma and so on. These complications if promptly treated, usually results in full recovery, however might prove fatal in case of delayed treatment.

Islet cell transplantation is a strictly experimental procedure in which insulin-producing islet (pronounced eye-let) cells from cadaver pancreases are transplanted into the liver of a type 1 diabetic. The procedure replaces the islet cells killed off as a result of an autoimmune response, which typically causes type 1 diabetes. “Pancreas transplants have been shown to work well in treating type 2 diabetes. Another factor that indicates islet cell transplantation might be an effective treatment for type 2 is the fact that type 2 diabetics are not suffering from an autoimmune response.

Apart from prevention and treatment, it is extremely important to manage the condition of diabetes as efficiently as possible. Management of diabetes mainly aims to minimize the risk of long-term consequences associated with diabetes. It not only involves keeping a check on blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol levels but also focussing on modern approaches like exercise, dietary and lifestyle management often coupled with on-going blood glucose level monitoring. Besides this, self-management of diabetes is also very crucial for the proper adherence to dietary and lifestyle modifications.

Diabetes in Healthcareis an introductory diabetes education tool for healthcare professionals covering Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. It has been developed by Diabetes UK and Bupa to allow easy access to good-quality diabetes education.Diabetes affects long-term damage to our body. Diabetic complications take a few years of poorly controlled diabetes to develop and these can be prevented by maintaining a strong level of control on diabetes, blood pressure, blood sugar level and cholesterol.

Multiple genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. A defect, which could be ascribed to a single or only few genes, has not been established yet. An exception represents the Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) which is rather rare and is caused by mutations in some of 6 known genes.Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to treat or prevent disease. In the future, this technique may allow doctors to treat a disorder by inserting a gene into a patient’s cells instead of using drugs or surgery.

Diabetes is mainly of three types however, research has shown that a variety of other rare types of diabetes also exists. While insulin deficiency or resistance is the chief causative factor for the three main types of diabetes, there are a host of other factors which are responsible for the rare types of diabetes. Diabetes pathophysiology seeks to highlight the functional changes in an organism brought about due to the occurrence of diabetes.

Also referred to as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), this procedure of treatment, which is not a part of standard medical care, have been found to be beneficial for many individuals with diabetes. Such treatments include Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture, Ayurvedic Medicine, Aromatherapy, relaxation therapy, etc. Some of these therapies aim at treating the body and the mind and are also helpful for relaxing and relieving stress. Additionally such therapies help in mitigating nerve pain in individuals who have diabetic neuropathy.

Also known as diabetic kidney disease (DKD), diabetic nephropathy is the chronic loss of kidney function primarily because of high blood glucose level. About 40% of the individuals affected with Diabetes Mellitus, eventually develops DKD. Diabetic Nephropathy is characterised by the loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria or albuminuria) and also by a decline in the estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate of the kidneys. It is one of the most common causes of End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) which can ultimately lead to kidney failure. A proper diet, healthy lifestyle, regular checking of blood glucose and lowering blood pressure can help prevent diabetic nephropathy and protect kidney function.

Neuropathic disorders associated with Diabetes mellitus is known as diabetic neuropathies. This is resulting with diabetic macro vascular injury or diabetic micro vascular injury involving mall blood vessels that supply nerves. It is a type of damage of nerves in legs and feet due to diabetes. Four types of diabetic neuropathies are well known i.e., Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy, Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy, Diabetic Proximal Neuropathy, Diabetic Focal Neuropathy. Most common affected part of peripheral neuropathy is legs and feet results in loss of foot sensation and risk of foot problems. Symptoms of autonomic neuropathy includes nausea, vomiting, feeling full after having small meals, diarrhea, heart burn etc.,

Gestational diabetes, if not carefully managed, can bring about complications for both the baby and the mother. Such complications are associated with premature birth, respiratory distress syndrome, excessive birth weight, hypoglycaemia, stillbirth, etc. Along with the baby, the mother is also at the risk of developing serious complications like preeclampsia, future diabetes, etc. Screening for gestational diabetes, losing extra weight before pregnancy, eating healthy foods, exercise, lifestyle changes are some of the preventive measures that can be adopted for diabetic complications during pregnancy.

Diabetic retinopathy, likewise called diabetic eye malady, is a medicinal condition in which causes harm in the retina because of diabetes mellitus and is a reason for visual impairment. Diabetic macular edema (DME) is an outcome of diabetic retinopathy, which causes swelling in a zone of the retina called the macula. Beginning times of diabetic retinopathy, as a rule, have no manifestations. The regular side effects of retinopathy incorporate sudden changes in vision/obscured vision, eye floaters, and spots, twofold vision, eye torment. Diabetic retinopathy is recognized amid an eye examination that incorporates visual keenness test, Fundus Fluorescence angiography (FFA), and Optical soundness tomography (OCT). The NEI is directing and supporting exploration that looks for better approaches to recognize, treat, and avert vision misfortune in individuals with diabetes.

Grown-ups with diabetes have additional possibilities with a pass on starting with coronary illness over grown-ups without diabetes. These difficulties incorporate coronary illness (CHD), stroke, fringe blood vessel disease, nephropathy, retinopathy, furthermore potentially neuropathy and cardiomyopathy. Those unfriendly impacts of diabetes extend to the greater part parts of the cardiovascular system, the microvasculature, those bigger arteries, and the heart, and also those kidneys. Grown-ups for diabetes need aid two will four times less averse with a pass on from coronary illness over Grown-ups without diabetes. Due to those maturing of the number and an expanding predominance of stoutness also inactive aggregation propensities for people. Type 2 diabetes happens toward a sooner period over large overweight persons, and the pervasiveness corpulence is increasing. Late populace investigations in the United States and other countries, need to be archived those abundance CVD danger done patients with diabetes from different racial also ethnic bunches.

Although Diabetes has been known since antiquity, treatments have been known thoroughly since the 21st century. The selection and application of a glucose-lowering therapy are dependent on many considerations like body mass index, ability to self-monitor the glucose level are the recent advances in Diabetes. The drugs used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes poses limitations, they have side-effects. The other medications strategies constitute a combination of therapy of insulin with sulfonylureas which reduces the daily requirement of insulin and insulin-metformin combination therapy. Drug-induced diabetes insipidus is always unresponsiveness of the kidneys to the action of antidiuretic hormone A variety of medications have been associated with the development of diabetes. Medicines which are used to treat obesity are proving to have significant health benefits for patients with type 2 diabetes. Pancreas and islet cell transplantation is the subject of ongoing research. There is much hope that new treatments outlined in this review will result in improved outcomes in the treatment of diabetes. Nanotechnology has a great deal for the world of medicines in diabetes.

Research has shown that diabetes is linked to an increased risk for different forms of cancer. Cancers of the liver, pancreas, and endometrium are twice as likely to occur in diabetic people as those in non-diabetic people. Studies have focussed more on the relationship between Type 2 Diabetes and Cancer, some of which have suggested that hyperinsulinemia might possibly promote the growth of tumours. Also, leading harmful lifestyles can also be attributed to the development of both diabetes and cancer. Making lifestyle changes and increasing awareness are some of the ways of reducing risks of cancer associated with diabetes.

Nutrition forms a very important part of diabetes care. Balancing all the right nutrients in the right amount helps in maintaining a healthy diet. Often a diabetic diet is recommended to individuals with diabetes which is naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and carbohydrates. The objective of such nutritional therapies is to attain and maintain optimal metabolic outcomes by keeping the blood glucose level as close to the normal range as possible. Dietary fibres also form a crucial part of diabetic diet as these moderates how the body digests and helps control blood sugar levels.

“Biomarker”, are called “molecular marker” or a “signature molecule”. These viewed as direct or indirect markers of the extent of disease as they lay outside in a casual way. HbA1c is considered a biomarker for a risk factor that is for retinopathy, nephropathy and other vascular diseases. Biomarkers enable preventive measures to be applied at the subclinical stage and the responses to preventive or therapeutic measures to be monitored. Cases over the past two decades have yielded sample sets, mostly blood products and urine from a large category of patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Pediatric or juvenile diabetes is chronic type 1 diabetes which affects the young population, particularly children under the age of 15. Such diabetes brings about lifetime dependency on exogenous insulin. Signs and symptoms of pediatric diabetes are similar to other types of diabetes and children are more likely to develop the disease if there is a family history of diabetes. Complications of pediatric diabetes also generally include heart diseases, nerve damage, nerve, kidney and eye damage, skin conditions, osteoporosis, etc. Proper diagnosis, treatment and management are the possible remedies for this type of diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes is characterized by an absolute loss of insulin secretion. It results from an autoimmune process that destroys insulin-producing β cells within the pancreatic islet. The importance of genetic factors in the etiology of type 1 diabetes is demonstrated by agreement rates of 5–10% in dizygotic twins and up to 27% in monozygotic twins. Patients with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of other immune-mediated diseases like thyroid disease, coeliac disease, autoimmune gastritis and Addison's disease.Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired insulin secretion, glucose intolerance, and hyperglycemia. Inflammation is considered as a major driving force in type -2 diabetes and associated complications also arise along with it. Components of the immune system are altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes with the most changes occurring in adipose tissue, the liver, pancreatic islets, the vasculature and circulating leukocytes.

Diabetic confusions give off an impression of being multifactorial in beginning, yet specifically, the biochemical procedure of cutting-edge glycation, which is quickened in diabetes because of incessant hyperglycemia and expanded oxidative pressure, has been hypothesized to assume a focal part in the endocrine issue. The endocrine issue is regularly very unpredictable, including a blended picture of hypo emission and hyper discharge as a result of the criticism instruments engaged with the endocrine framework. Endocrinology focuses generally on the endocrine organs or those organs that may realize hormone awkwardness. These organs fuse the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, ovaries, gonads, and pancreas. This can be a convoluted specialty. There are various organs and hormones in the body, each with their own specific occupations to do. It is a delicate compound modify that keeps our bodies running effectively with alongside no effort on our part. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an expanded danger of building up some rheumatologic ailments, including muscle localized necrosis, carpal passage syndrome, etc.

Diabetic Food application market is segmented into confectionary, ice creams & jellies, dietary beverages, snacks, baked products, dairy products and others. Dietary beverages are the largest revenue generating segment due to varied products of dietary beverages and relatively large consumption of the beverages globally.Geographically, Market is segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and RoW. North America is the largest revenue-generating segment due to the largest population pool that is suffering from chronic diseases and relatively more number of health conscious population.

The word epidemiology comes from the Greek word Epi, connotation "on or upon," demos, meaning "people," and logos, meaning "the study of”. Epidemiology is a quantitative regulation built on a functioning knowledge of likelihood, statistics, and sound investigation methods; a method of causal interpretation based on developing and testing theories relating to incidence and deterrence of morbidity and mortality; and an implement for public health conflict to encourage and safeguard the public's health.

Antibiotics are medicines that fight infections caused by bacteria. They kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing. Antibiotics are powerful drugs that, when used properly, can save lives. There’s no doubt that antibiotics are invaluable. However, thanks to antibiotics being overused and used improperly, we’re now facing a serious and scary problem called antibiotic resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a result of these infections.

Antibiotics are medicines that fight infections caused by bacteria. They kill bacteria or keep them from reproducing. Antibiotics are powerful drugs that, when used properly, can save lives. There’s no doubt that antibiotics are invaluable. However, thanks to antibiotics being overused and used improperly, we’re now facing a serious and scary problem called antibiotic resistance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a result of these infections.

Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease with a great social impact. The quality of life and the lifespan of the patients with the disease depend on its complications.0xidative stress may be defined as a measure of the steady-state level of reactive oxygen or oxygen radicals in biological system. Most of the studies reveal the inference of oxidative stress in diabetes pathogenesis by the alteration in enzymatic systems, lipid peroxidation, impaired Glutathione metabolism and decreased Vitamin C levels.

Many common herbs and spices are claimed to have blood sugar lowering properties that make them useful for people with or at high risk of type 2 diabetes. A number of clinical studies have been carried out in recent years that show potential links between herbal therapies and improved blood glucose control, which has led to an increase in people with diabetes using these more 'natural' ingredients to help manage their condition.

Diabetes is a serious condition which still doesn't have a cure which makes new research, treatment and management techniques a crucial necessity. Over the past years there have been considerable breakthroughs in understanding and preventing diabetic complications. While some research focuses on generating artificial pancreas or engineering insulin-producing beta cells, some other researches are directed towards finding newer and longer lasting drug molecules, devising more efficient diets and also developing intensive treatment programs. Needless to say, trends and advances on diabetes research is the need of the hour for bringing about excellent management of this serious life-threatening disease.

One of the most important features of diabetes management is the self-management of diabetes which can be successfully achieved and complications prevented with the help and support of the nursing team. Diabetes specialist nurses play a crucial role in screening diabetic persons, detecting early onset of diabetes, assessing nutritional needs of the patient, promoting self-management, providing prevention advice, spreading awareness on diabetes and also providing health coaching. In this context, it is extremely necessary for nurses to be well educated, trained and skilled adequately to be able to proficiently deliver care, support self-management and provide advice to diabetic persons.

A diabetic coma is a life-threatening diabetes complication that causes unconsciousness. If you have diabetes, dangerously high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or dangerously low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can lead to a diabetic coma. If you lapse into a diabetic coma, you're alive — but you can't awaken or respond purposefully to sights, sounds or other types of stimulation. Left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal.

Also termed as Syndrome X, metabolic syndrome refers to a group of conditions like increased blood pressure, blood sugar, greater waist circumference and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that occur together, thereby, enhancing the risk of developing heart disease, stroke and diabetes. Most commonly occurring symptoms include abdominal obesity, fatigue, insulin resistance, frequent urination, etc. Metabolic syndrome is usually brought about due to overweight, obesity and inactivity and can be reversed by being physically active, losing weight, having proper diet and making certain lifestyle changes.

Diabetes, regularly alluded as diabetes mellitus, depicts a gathering of metabolic maladies is either on the grounds that insulin creation is insufficient, or in light of the fact that the body's phones don't react appropriately to insulin, or both the sorts. In type-1 diabetic patients, they inherit risk factors from both parents. Recent research has shown that offspring develop 3%of the time if the mother has the condition and 5% if the father has the condition. Environmental changes also trigger type-1 diabetes. Several viruses also trigger type-1 diabetes like measles virus, rotavirus.Type-2 is the more generic form of disorder which includes 90% of the world cases. 70% patients with type-2 diabetes are inherited from the parents whereas the remaining patients were obese.

The concept of 'new technologies' for type 1 diabetes and new discovery and advanced type 2 diabetes treatment has expanded in recent years at a rate that some might consider comparable to 'Moore’s Law', and the sheer number of new technologies entering into the type 1 diabetes marketplace is also growing at a remarkable rate. From the patient’s perspective, this is not only exciting but can lead to a sense of optimism. Technologies that today are growing commonplace (e.g. insulin pumps, rapid HbA1c monitoring, etc come under new therapeutic mechanisms of diabetes. Indeed, it could be argued that the major advances in type 1 diabetes care made within the last quarter of a century have come from technology rather than biology. At the same time, not all new technologies succeed (e.g. the Glucowatch), regardless of their purported promise. Both type 1 diabetes patients and their healthcare providers will soon see a series of further advanced medical technologies used in hospital and new technologies and novel therapies in diabetes treatment whose basis is tied to the notion of improving the lives of those with the disease.

The cost of treating diabetes in the United States increased from $174 billion in 2007 to $245 billion in 2012, or 41% over five years, according to the American Diabetes Association.In recent decades, large increases in diabetes prevalence have been demonstrated in virtually all regions of the world. The increase in the number of people with diabetes or with a longer duration of diabetes is likely to alter the disease profile in many populations around the globe, particularly due to a higher incidence of diabetes-specific complications, such as kidney failure and peripheral arterial disease.

The term diabetes mellitus describes several diseases of abnormal carbohydrate metabolism that are characterized by hyperglycaemia. It is associated with a relative or absolute impairment in insulin secretion, along with varying degrees of peripheral resistance to the action of insulin. They are derived after doing many clinical trials on animal models. Every few years, the diabetes community revaluates the current recommendations for the classification, diagnosis, and screening of diabetes, reflecting new information from research and clinical practice which in turns help in understanding current prevention and treatment options and cost effectiveness in treatment and prevention of Diabetes. People with type1 and type2 diabetes have an increased risk of developing a number of serious health problems. Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to serious diseases affecting the Macro vascular and micro vascular complications. In addition, people with diabetes also have a higher risk of developing infections. In almost all high-income countries, diabetes is a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower limb amputation. Maintaining blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and cholesterol at or close to normal can help delay or prevent diabetes complications. Hypoglycaemia and Hyperglycaemia are the other two factors are the two major complications of diabetes where hyperglycaemia is an acute complication sharing many symptoms and hypoglycaemia is an acute complication of several diabetes treatments. Glycosylated haemoglobin is a form of haemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over prolonged periods of time.