To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the risk of pollution to waterways, organic waste can be removed and used to produce biogas, a renewable source of energy. When displacing fossil fuels, biogas creates further emission reductions, sometimes resulting in carbon negative systems.
Although there is unlimited supply of the fossil fuels, we should go for the use of renewable energy as it is not only safe for the environment, eco-friendly but also less prone to pollutants if any. The development in renewable technologies has led to human development both way rural and urban. A single form of renewable energy can be further converted into different forms.
First generation biofuels have derived from like starch, sugar, animal fats and vegetable oil. Second generation biofuels produced from cellulose, hemicellulose or lignin. Next-generation biofuels are renewable alternatives to gasoline, produced from non-traditional feedstocks such as wheat straw, Corn Stover, wood residue and switchgrass, and renewable alternatives to diesel, produced from non-traditional feedstocks such as waste oils and animal fats.
It seeks to provide some context for (a) understanding the limitations of “first-generation” biofuels (made today from grains, seeds and sugar crops); (b) providing meaningful descriptions accessible to non-experts of “second-generation” biofuels (made from “lignocellulosic” biomass such as crop residues or purpose-grown grasses or woody crops); (c) presenting salient energy, carbon and economic comparisons among biofuels; and (d) speculating on the implications for trade and development of future expansion in global production and use of biofuels
The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies widely when considering the entire life cycle from production through transport to use. The net balance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of fossil energy needed. When forests or grasslands are converted to farmland, be it to produce biofuel feedstocks or to produce other crops displaced by feedstock production, carbon stored in the soil is released into the atmosphere.
The effects can be so great that they negate the benefits of biofuels, and lead to a net increase in greenhouse gas emissions when replacing fossil fuels. When crops for biofuel production require irrigation it exerts pressure on local water resources. In addition, water quality can be affected by soil erosion and runoff containing fertilisers and pesticides. Biofuel production can affect biodiversity. For instance habitat is lost when natural landscapes are converted into energy-crop plantations or peatlands are drained. In some instances, however, biofuel crops can have a positive impact, for instance when they are used to restore degraded lands.
Biomass feedstocks include forest products wastes, agricultural residues, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes, paper, cardboard, plastic, food waste, green waste, and other waste. Biomass is a sustainable feedstock for chemicals and energy products. Biomass feedstocks are more evenly distributed in the world. As an energy source that is highly productive, renewable, carbon neutral, and easy to store and transport, biomass has drawn worldwide attention recently.
The technology and process developments that have been successful in qualifying biofuels for safe and environmentally favourable operation in jet aircraft, which is the first aspect and a needed perquisite to enable acceptance and successful deployment. The second and as important focus for sustainable Aviation biofuels is the processes that are being put in place to enable deployment.
Algae-based fuel producers use sunlight, water and carbon dioxide to convert carbon dioxide into sugar, which the algae metabolize into lipids, or oil. The industry says it can do so using non-potable water and without converting more forests into farm fields – thus addressing major criticisms of corn- and soy-based biofuels.
Microalgae for its utilization towards the generation of biodiesel highlighting the significance of certain key parameters such as selection of efficient strain, microalga metabolism, cultivation systems (open and closed) and biomass production along with the national and international biodiesel specifications and properties. The potential use of photo bioreactors for biodiesel production under the influence of various factors viz., light intensity, pH, time, temperature, CO2 concentration and flow rate.
Biomass is the only renewable energy source that can offer a viable supplement to petroleum-based liquid transportation fuels—such as gasoline, jet, and diesel fuel. Biofuels include cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and renewable hydrocarbon (gasoline, diesel, and jet) fuels.
Biogas generation relies on renewable, natural materials that can be replanted or reproduced, thus making it a sustainable method. The by-product of the biogas generation process is enriched organic digestate, which is a perfect supplement to, or substitute for, chemical fertilisers, which often have toxic and harmful effects. In contrast, the organic digestate can accelerate plant growth and resilience to diseases.
Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier which has a great potential to be an alternative fuel. Abundant biomass from various industries could be a source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage.
Types of potential biomass that could be the source for biohydrogen generation such as food and starch-based wastes, cellulosic materials, dairy wastes, palm oil mill effluent and glycerol.
Renewable chemicals are utilized in several applications across different Chemical industries such as in food processing, housing, textiles, environment, transportation, hygiene, pharmaceutical, and other applications. Renewable chemicals are mainly available as ketones, alcohols, organic acids, and bio-polymers. They are used in surfactants and lubricants, consumer goods, resins, and plastics for environmental purpose.
Biorefining is the sustainable processing of biomass into bio-based products (food, feed, chemicals and other materials) and bioenergy (biofuels, power and/or heat). The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Biorefinery concerns the processing of biomass in a spectrum of products.
The future of power engineering includes challenges of fundamental energy sources, and in the technological development of electronic energy controls. In particular, the following areas are identified: development of viable large-scale energy storage; effective control of loads; largescale development of renewable resources to attain some measure of sustainability worldwide; direct digital control of bulk energy and power systems.
The intent is to cover all the technical contents, applications, and multidisciplinary aspects of Wind Energy, embedded in the fields of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Physics, Turbulence, Energy Technology, Control, Meteorology and Long-Term Wind Forecasts, Wind Turbine Technology, System Integration and Energy Economics, as well as the methodologies behind them.
Data analytics for prediction of solar generation and PV system performance and Computational methods for revealing insights about diffusion of solar technologies at the residential, commercial, and utility scales that integrate large administrative, geospatial, economic, and financial datasets.
A related review show that energy conversion technologies such as incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, anaerobic digestion, ethanol fermentation, landfill and future trends like microbial fuel cell (MFC) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) are the main ways. Among those Waste to Energy technologies are ecologically green that convert MSW into electricity, hydrogen gas and other chemical feedstocks.
The sensitivity towards global warming is increasing across the globe and several big companies claim to be functioning entirely on green energy to reduce carbon emission and do their part in saving the planet.
Biofuels impact on food security, Non-food crops for biofuels production, Agricultural modernization and its impact on society, Food, fuel and freeways
Sustainability is tends to renewable fuel sources, reducing carbon emissions, protecting environments and a way of keeping the delicate ecosystems of our planet in balance. In short, sustainability looks to protect our natural environment, human and ecological health, while driving innovation and not compromising our way of life.
Depending on the form of energy which needs to be balanced and the required storage period, different types of energy storages such as thermal, electrical, material or virtual storages can be used. While material and especially thermal systems have an intrinsic storage capacity and with that are able to absorb short-term fluctuations itself, electrical systems are highly depending on perfect balancing.
Economics frequently affects what energy sources power our society and how our wastes are treated. Earth sciences and economics are essential for our understanding of the many mechanisms, both physical and social, that affect Earth's environment.
This includes minerals, rocks, soils and waters and how these materials interact with each other and with the atmosphere. Fundamental economic theory and the economic effects of public policy toward resource industries, methods of waste disposal, and the potential effects of global warming on the global economy are also explored.